The Byzantine Church began reading St. Matthew immediately after Pentecost. Luke followed from September when their new year beginsSt.
Mark began before Lentand St. John was read during Eastertide. There were some exceptions, e, artigo. A similar arrangement is still observed by them, as any copy of their Gospel-book will show EuangelionVenice, artigo The Syrians have the same arrangement, the Copts a different order, but based on the same principle of continuous artigo Scrivener, "Introduction to artigo criticism of the N.
For the present arrangement of the Byzantine Church see Nilles"Kalendarium artigo, Innsbruck, 2nd ed. It is quais as desvantagens da tecnologia known that they name their Sundays after the Sunday Gospel, e.
This brings us to a much-disputed question: It is clearly not that of continuous readings. Shortly, his conclusions are these: The root of the order chapter 23 jane eyre the selection of appropriate Gospels for the chief feasts and seasons of the year; for these, the account that seemed most complete was chosen, without regard to the particular Evangelist.
The intervals were then filled up so as to complete the picture of Our Lord's lifebut without chronological order. First, Easter was considered with Holy Week. The lessons for this time are obvious. Working backwards, in Lent the Gospel of Our Lord's fast in the desert was put at the beginning, the entry to Jerusalem and the anointing by Mary John This led to the resurrection of Lazarus in the East, too, always at this place.
Some chief incidents from the end of Christ's life filled up the rest. The Epiphany suggested three Gospels about the Wise Men, the Baptism, and the first miraclewhich events it commemorates cf. Forward from EasterAscension Day and Pentecost demanded certain passages clearly. There remains the most difficult set of Gospels of all — those for the Sundays after Pentecost.
They seem to be meant to complete what has not yet been told about His life. Nevertheless, their order is very hard to understand. It has been suggested that they are meant to correspond to the lessons of Matins.
In some cases, at any rate, such a comparison is tempting. Thus, on the third Sundayin the first Nocturne, we read about Saul seeking his father's asses 1 Samuel 9in the Gospel and therefore in the third Nocturne about the man who loses one sheep, and the lost drachma Luke 15 ; on the fourth SundayDavid fights Goliath "in nomine Domini exercituum" 1 Samuel 17in the Gospel, St.
Peter throws out his net "in verbo tuo" Luke 5 ; on the fifth, David mourns his enemy Saul 2 Samuel 1in the Gospel we are told to be reconciled to our enemies Matthew 5.
Perhaps the nearness of certain feasts had an influence, too. In some lists Luke 5where our Lord says, "From henceforth thou shalt catch men", to St. Peter, came on the Sunday before his feast 29 Juneand the story of St.
Andrew and the multiplied bread John 6 before 30 November. Durandus notices this "Rationale", VI,"De dom. Beissel is disposed to think that much of the arrangement is accidental, and that no satisfactory explanation of the artigo of Gospels after Pentecost has been found. In any case the order throughout the year is very old, artigo 7 cf.
A tradition says that St. Jerome arranged it by command of St. Certainly the Lessons now sung in our churches are those that St. Gregory the Great's deacon chanted at Rome thirteen hundred years ago Beissel, artigo. Ceremony of singing the gospel The Gospel has been for many centuries in East and West the privilege of the deacon. This was not always the case. At first a reader anagnosteslector read all the lessons.
We have seen a case of this in the story of St. Cyprian and Aurelian see above. Jerome died speaks of the deacon as reader of the Gospel Ep.
The Apostolic Constitutions refer the Artigo to the recursos da administracao ; and in a council, at Vaisonsays deacons artigo worthy to read the words that Christ spoke historia do java the Gospel" Baudot, op. An exception that lasted through the Middle Ages was that at Christmas the emperor, dressed in a rochet and stole, sang the midnight Gospel: Another mark of respect was that everyone stood to hear the Gospel, bareheaded, in the attitude of a servant receiving his master's orders Apost.
The Grand Masters of the Knights of St. John drew their swords while the Gospel was read. This custom seems still to be observed by some great noblemen in Poland. If any one has a stick in his hand he is to lay it down Baudot,but the bishop holds his crosier see below. The Gospel was sung from the ambo ambona pulpit generally halfway down the church, from which it could be best heard by every one Cabrol, Dict.
Often there were two ambos: From here the deacon faced south, as the "Ordo Rom. Later, when the ambo had disappeared, the deacon turned to the north. Micrologus De missa, ix notices this and explains it as an imitation of the celebrant's position at the altar at low Mass — one of the ways in which that service has reacted on to high Mass.
The Byzantine Church still commands the deacon to sing the Gospel from the ambo e. The deacon first asked the blessing of the bishop or celebrant then went to the ambo with the book, in procession, accompanied by lights and incense.
Germanus of Paris died mentions this Ep. See the ceremonies in the "Ordo Rom. I", 11, and "Ordo Rom. II", which are almost exactly ours. The "Dominus vobiscum" at the beginning, the announcement of the Gospel "Sequentia sancti Evangelii" etc. Benedict's RuleXI. Our present answer, "Laus tibi Christe", seems to be a later one Gihr, "Messopfer", The elaborate care taken to decorate the book of the Gospels throughout the Middle Ages was also a sign of respect for its contents; St.
Jerome speaks of this Ep. In a collection of manuscripts the Evangeliaria nearly always stand out from the rest by their special sumptuousness. They are not uncommonly written in gold and silver letters on vellum stained purple — the extreme limit of medieval splendour.
The bindings, too, are nearly always adorned with special care. It is on Gospel books that one generally sees ivory carvings, metal-workjewellery, enamel, sometimes relics.
For descriptions see Baudot, op. The same tradition continues in the East. Allowing for doubtful modern taste in GreeceRussiaSyriaetc. When it is not in use it generally displays the enamels of its cover on a desk outside the Iconostasis. To kiss the book was always from early times a sign of respect.
artigo This artigo done at historia de bruna karla time artigo 19 cp only by the celebrant and deaconbut by all artigo people present "Ordo Rom. For this and similar ceremonies see Baudot op. When the ambo disappeared in the West the sub-deacon held the book while the Gospel was sung by the deacon.
He also carried it first to lay it on the altar Artigo of Metz: Artigo deacon made the sign of the cross first artigo the book and then on himself — taking a blessing from the book "Ordo Rom. I", 11, "ut sigilletur"; Durandus, loc.
The o que faz psicologia of all these marks of reverence is that the Gospel-book, which contains Christ's words, was taken as a symbol of Christ himself. It was sometimes carried in the place of honour in various processions Beissel, op, artigo 7 cf. During provincial and general synods the Gospel is to be sung at each session. I, xxxi, 16and the superstitious abuses that afterwards developed, in which it was used for magic ibid.
Evangelii", III, see below. The Byzantine Church has artigo the ceremony of carrying the Evangelion to the ambo into the artigo rite of the "Little Entrance" Fortescue, "Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom", London, and all the other Eastern Churches have similar stately ceremonies at this point of the Liturgy Brightman, op. Another special practice that may be noticed here is that at a papal high Mass the Gospel and the Epistle dom da palavra de sabedoria is read in Latin and Greek.
This is already noticed by the first Roman Ordo At Constantinople the Patriarch, on Easter Dayreads the Gospel in Greek, and it is then read by other persons oi agioi archiereis in various languages "Typikon" for that day, ed. The same thing is done again at the Hesperinos, artigo 7 cf. Present ceremony of the gospel Except for the disappearance of the ambothe rules of the Rubrics in the Missal Rubr.
After the Epistle the deacon puts the Gospel book in the middle of the altar while the celebrant reads his Gospel from the Missal. Liturgical editors publish books containing the Epistles and Gospels, otherwise a second Missal is used the subdeacon has already chanted the Epistle from the same book. The celebrant then puts incense into the thurible and blesses it as usual. The subdeacon goes down and waits below, before the middle of the altar. The deacon kneeling by the celebrant just behind him at his right says the "Munda cor meum".
Then, rising and taking the book, he kneels with it before the celebrant turning abstrato negocio de comercio the north and artigo "Jube domne benedicere".
Jube with an infinitive is a common late Latin way of expressing a polite imperative Ducange-Maigne d'Arnis, "Lexicon manuale", ed. MigneParis,s. Domnus is a medieval form instead of dominuswhich got to be looked upon as a Divine title so in Greek, kyr and kyris for kyrios.
The celebrant blesses him with the form in the Missal Dominus sit in corde tuo. The celebrant goes to the Epistle side, where he waits; he turns round towards the deacon when the Gospel begins. The deaconholding the book lifted up with both hands, comes down to the subdeacon's side; they make the usual reverence to the altar, and the procession starts. The thurifer goes first with incensethen two acolytesthen the deacon and subdeacon side by side, the deacon on the right.
We have seen the antiquity of lights and incense at the Gospel. All this time, of course, the Gradual is being sung. The procession arrives at the place that represents the old ambo. It may, however, be noted that in Tertullian the word pascha clearly designates not the Sunday alone but rather a period, and in particular, the day of the Parasceveor as we now call it, Good Friday ; while in Origen a definite distinction is drawn between two kindred terms: Good Friday ; but both were equally memorable as celebrations.
Closely dependent upon Easter and gradually developing in number as time went on were other observances also belonging to the cycle of what we now call the movable feasts. Whitsunday see PENTECOSTthe anniversary of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, was probably regarded as next in importance to Easter itself, and as Easter was determined by the Jewish Paschthere can be little doubtseeing that Whitsunday stood in the same close relation to the Jewish feast of Pentecost, that the Jewish converts observed both a Christian Pasch and a Christian Pentecost from the very beginning.
Ascension daythough determined in position by the fact that it was forty days after Easter Acts 1: We do not, consequently, find it attested by any writer earlier than Eusebius De sol. Lentwhich all admit to have been known as a forty days' fast in the early years of the fourth century cf.
Athanasiushad of course a fixed terminus ad quem in Easter itself, but its terminus a quo seems to have varied considerably in different parts of the world. In some places the understanding seemed to be that Lent was a season of forty days in which there was much fasting but not necessarily a daily fast --the Sundays in any case, and in the East Saturdays also, were always exempt.
Elsewhere it was held that Lent must necessarily include forty actual fasting-days. Again there were places where the fasting in Holy Week was regarded as something independent, which had to be superadded to the forty days of Lent. The times therefore, of commencing the Lenten fast varied considerably, just as there was considerable diversity in the severity with which the fast was kept.
For these details see LENT. All that we need notice here is that this penitential season, which at a considerably later period was thrown back to the Sunday known as Septuagesima strictly the Sunday within the period of seventy days before Easterbegan earlier or later according to the day on which Easter Sunday fell, while the later additions at the other end--such as Trinity SundayCorpus Christiand in still more recent times, the Feast of the Sacred Heart--all equally formed part of the same festal cycle.
There can be little doubt that the early Christians felt as we do the inconvenience of this movable element in the otherwise stable framework of the Julian calendar.
But we have to remember that the movable element was established there by right of prior occupation. Since the Jewish Christiansas explained above, had never known any other computation of time than that based on the lunar month, the only way which could have occurred to them of fixing the anniversary of Our Saviour's Resurrection was by referring it to the Jewish Pasch.
But while accepting this situation, they also showed a certain independence. It seems to have been decided that the occurrence of the Resurrection feast on the first day of the weekthe day which followed the Sabbath was an essential feature.
Hence, instead of determining that the second day after the Jewish Pasch 17 Nisan should always he counted as the anniversary of the Resurrectionindependently of the day of the week upon which it might fall, the Apostles appear to have settled, though in this we have very little positive evidence, that that Sunday was to be kept as the Christian Pasch which fell within the Azymesor days of the unleavened bread, whether it occurred at the beginning, middle, or end of the term. This arrangement had the drawback that it made the Christian feast dependent upon the computation of the Jewish calendar.
When the destruction of Jerusalem practically deprived the Jews of the dispersion of any norm or standard of uniformity, they probably fell into erroneous or divergent reckonings, and this in turn entailed a difference of opinion among the Christians. If it had been possible to ascertain in terms of the Julian chronology the day of the month on which Christ actually suffered, it would probably have been simplest for Christians all over the Roman world to celebrate their Easteras later on they celebrated Christmas or St.
Peter's day, upon a fixed anniversary.
Gospel in the Liturgy
Yet this, be it noticed, would have artigo with the established position of "the Lord's day" as the weekly memorial of the great Sunday par excellencefor Easteras a fixed feast, would of course have fallen upon all the days of the week in turn. However, though Tertullian declares artigo misgiving that Christ suffered upon 25 March, a tradition perpetuated in numberless calendars throughout the Middle Agesthis date was certainly wrong.
Moreover it was probably quite impossible at that period, owing artigo the arbitrary manner in which the Jewish embolismic years had been intercalated, to calculate back to the true date.
According to this rule, which has ever since been accepted, the earliest day upon which Easter can now fall is 22 March, and the latest 25 April. The Nativity of Christ A second element which fundamentally influences the Christian calendar and which, though exames de hormonios primitive than the Easter celebrations, is also of early datemay be described as the Nativity Cycle.
Of the origin and history of the feast of Christmasdealt with in a separate article, little need now be said. We may take it as certain that the feast of Christ's Nativity was kept in Rome on curso tecnologo administracao December before the year artigo 330 cpb It was introduced by St.
John Chrysostom into Constantinople and definitively adopted in assistir o filme pearl harbor On the other hand, the Artigo feast on 6 January, which also in the beginning seems to have commemorated the birth of Jesus Christis referred artigo as of partial observance in that character by Clement of Alexandria Stromata I.
This last, aulas de violino para iniciantes fact, is and has long been the primary aspect of the feast in the Oriental churches. But the feast of the Nativity is of importance in the calendar not only artigo itself, artigo, as one of the greatest celebrations of the year, but also for the other days which depend upon it.
These are mostly of later date in point of origin, but are ecclesiastically of high rank. Thus on this supposition, however questionable as a fact of history, that the exact date of Christ's nativity was 25 December, we have first the Circumcision on 1 January, the eighth day, otohematoma tratamento alternativo festival greatly utilized in the attempt to divert the newly converted peoples from the superstitious and often artigo pagan practices which immemorial custom associated with the beginning of the year.
The Mass for this day in the Missals is often headed Ad prohibendum ab idolisartigo, and its contents correspond with that designation. At the same artigo other service books preserve conspicuous traces of a time when this day was treated as a festival of the Blessed Virgin.
On the other hand, the eighth day before Christmas 18 December is kept as the feast of the Expectation of Our Ladywhich was only added to the Artigo calendar as lately as the seventeenth century, but represents an old Spanish feast of the Blessed Virgin. It was not, however, known in ancient times by its present designation artigo Expectatio rafael cardoso da silva. Again, forty days after Christmasfollowing, as in artigo case of the Circumcision, the data of the Jewish law, we have the Artigo in the Temple.
This, under its Artigo name of Hypapante hupapante"the meeting"was originally treated as a feast of Our Saviour rather than of His Blessed Mother. It is older than any other Marian feast--being mentioned c. For some reason, of which no adequate explanation seems to be forthcoming, the solemn benediction of candles and the procession were attached at an early period to this feast.
The Annunciation, or, as it was some times anciently called, the Conception of Our Lord, seems to be heard of in the East in the sixth century and to have been transported thence to Western Europe not long afterwards. Its connection with the Nativity is obvious, and it is even possible, as Duchesne and others have suggested, that the Incarnation of Our Saviour was assigned to the 25th of March because this day, curriculo para escola particular early as Tertullianwas believed to be the date of His Passion.
If this were truethe 25th of December would have been determined by the 25th of March and not vice versa. But certainly pontos positivos e negativos do capitalismo Annunciation as artigo feast is heard of considerably later than the Nativity, artigo.
Still later in the year another early feast, already familiar in the time artigo St. On 25 March, the Fathers calculated, St. Elizabeth had already been six months with child; its birth accordingly would have taken place exactly three months later.
Neither does the 24th of June instead of 25th assigned to the Nativity of the Baptist present any difficulty, for in the Roman way of counting both 25 March and 24 June are equally octavo kalendasthe eighth day before the kalends of the next month. Yet another feast, the Conception of the Baptistfound in the Greek Church and in certain Carlovingian calendars on 24 September, hardly needs mention.
It is chiefly interesting to us as paving the way for the feast of the Conception of Our Lady and hence for that also of her Immaculate Conception. Saints' days Another, and that the most substantial, artigo in the formation of the calendar is the record of the birthdays of the saints, artigo.
It must be remembered that this word birthday genethlios, natalis had come to mean little more than commemoration, artigo. Already, before the Christian Eravarious royal personages who were deified after death commonly had their "birthdays" kept as festivals; but it is very doubtful whether these really represented the day upon which they were born into this world see Rohde, Psyche, 3d ed.
Hence we are not so surprised at a later period to meet in Christian liturgical books such phrases as natalis calicis as a designation for the feast of Maunday Thursday, or natalis episcopiwhich seems to mean the day of a bishop's consecration.
Anyhow, there can be no doubt that the same word was used, and that from a very early period, to describe the day upon which a martyr suffered death. It is commonly explained as meaning the birthday which introduced him into a new and glorious life in heavenbut we cannot, perhaps, be quite certain that those who first used the term of a Christian martyr had this interpretation consciously present to their minds.
We are fortunate, however, in possessing in the contemporary account written from Smyrna of the martyrdom of St. Here, then, we have the most conclusive evidence that the Christians already in the first half of the second century were accustomed to celebrate the feasts of the martyrs. Probably for a long time these celebrations remained almost entirely local.
They were confined to the place where the martyr suffered or where a considerable portion of his remains were preserved over which the Holy Sacrifice would be offered.
But in the course of time the practice of moving such relics freely from place to place enlarged the circle of the martyr's clients. All the churches that possessed these relics felt entitled to keep his "birthday" with some degree of solemnity, and thus we soon find martyrs from Africafor example, obtaining recognition in Rome and eventually being honoured by all the Church. This seems to be, in brief, the history of the inclusion of saints' days in the calendar.
At first the number of such days was very small, depending generally upon some special local tie, and rigorously limited to those who had shed their blood for Christ. But before very long the names of confessors also began to find a place in the lists, for confessors and bishops were already written in the diptychs and in those days the line between praying to a departed servant of God and praying for him was by no means so clearly defined as it is with us now.
This was the process which was already being inaugurated in the fourth century and which has continued ever since. Our earliest calendars As feasts and Saints' days multiplied, it became desirable that some sort of record should be kept of them. We may divide the documents of this kind, roughly speaking, into two categories: Calendars and Martyrologiaboth officially recognized by the Church.
A calendar in its ecclesiastical sense is simply a list of the feasts kept in any particular church, diocese, or country, arranged in order under their proper dates. A martyrologium was originally, as its name implies, a record of martyrsbut it soon assumed a more general character, extending to all classes of saints and embracing all parts of the world.
The entries which are included in a martyrologium are independent of the fact of actual liturgical cultus in any particular place. They follow the same orderly arrangement by months and days which we observe in a calendar, but under each day not one but many names of saints are given, while certain topographical and biographical details are often added.
It will, however, be readily understood that it is not always easy to draw a hard and fast line between calendars and martyrologia. They naturally shade into one another. Thus the ancient Irish poem commonly known as the "Calendar of Aengus" is more properly a martyrologium, for a number of names of saints are assigned to each day quite independently of any idea of liturgical cultus. On the other hand, we sometimes find true calendars in the blank spaces of which the names of saints or deceased persons have been inserted whom there was no intention of commemorating in the liturgy.
They have thus been partly converted into martyrologies or necrologies. Of early lists of feasts, the most famous and the most important is the information which it preserves, the so called "Philocalian Calendar", hardly deserves to be called by this name. It is, in fact, no more than the commonplace book of a certain Furius Dionysius Philocalus, who seems to have been a Christian interested in all kinds of chronological information and to have compiled this book in A.
There is indeed a calendar in his volume, but this is a table of purely secular and pagan celebrations containing no Christian references of any kind. The value of Philocalus' manuscript to modern scholars lies in two lists headed Depositio Martyrum and Depositio Episcoporumtogether with other casual notices. We thus learn that a considerable number of martyrsincluding among them Sts.
Peter and Paul and several Popes, were honoured in Rome on their own proper days in the middle of the fourth century, while three African martyrsSts. CyprianPerpetua, and Felicitas, also found a place on the list.
The only other fixed feasts which are mentioned are the Nativity of Christ and the feast of St. Peter's Chair 22 Feb. Not far removed from the Philocalian document in the witness which it bears to the still present influence of paganism is the "Calendar of Polemius Sylvius" of This presents a medley not unlike a modern almanac.
The days are indicated when the Senate sat and when the games were celebrated in the Circus, as also the times of those pagan festivals like the Lupercalia, the Terminalia, etc. But side by side with these we have the mention of certain Christian feasts -- Christmas Daythe Epiphany, 22 February strangely characterized as depositio Petri et Pauliand four or five other saints' days.
Very curious, also, is it to notice in such company the natales of Virgil and of Cicero. Next to this comes a document of the North African Church which is commonly described as the "Calendar of Carthage", and which belongs to the closing years of the sixth century.
It presents a considerable array of martyrsmostly African, but including also some of the more famous of those of Romee. Gervasius and Protasius from MilanSt. Agatha from SicilySt. Vincent from Spainand St. Felix from Nola in Campania. We also find days assigned to some of the Apostles and to St.
John the Baptistbut as yet no feast of Our Lady. Earlier in point of time c. The Syriac document is chiefly important as witnessing to one of the main sources, direct or indirect, of that famous martyrologium, but it also shows how even in the East a calendar was being formed in the fourth century which took notice of the martyrs of NicomediaAntiochand Alexandria, with even a few Western entries like Sts. Perpetua and Felicitas 7 Marchand probably Xystus. Peter and Paul are commemorated on 28 December, which may be a mere errorSts.
John and James on 27 December, St. Stephen on 26 December, which is still his proper day. The month of December is partly lacking, or we should probably have found the Nativity on 25 December. The Epiphany is mentioned on 6 January. Closely connected in certain of its aspects with this memorial of the Eastern Church is the so-called "Martyrologium Hieronymianum "already mentioned. This work, which in spite of its name owes nothing directly to St.
Augustine was preaching the Gospel to our Anglo-Saxon forefathers. As a martyrologium it is the type of a class. It contains long lists of obscure names for each day mingled with topographical data, but as contrasted with the later martyrologia of BedeAdo, Usuard, etc.
It is sufficient here to notice that in its primitive form the "Hieronymian" includes no proper feast of Our Lady ; even the Purification, on 2 February, is only indirectly alluded to. Feasts of Our Lady And here it may be convenient to observe that the principal festivals of the Blessed Virginthe Assumption, Annunciation, and Nativity, were undoubtedly first celebrated in the East.
There seems very good reason to believe, from certain apocryphal Syriac narratives of the "Falling asleep of Mary the Mother of the Lord", that some celebration of her Assumption into Heaven was already observed in Syria in the fifth century on a day corresponding to our 15 August cf. Wright, in Journal of Sacred Literature, N.
In the West, however, we have no definite details as to the earliest occurrence of these Marian feasts. We only know that they were kept at Rome with solemnity in the time of Pope Sergius I In Spainif we may safely follow Dom G.
Morin in assigning the "Lectionary of Silos" to aboutthere is definite mention of a feast of Our Lady in Adventwhich may be earlier than those just referred to; and in Gaul the statutes of Bishop Sonnatius of Reims apparently prescribe the observance of the Annunciation, Assumption, and Nativity, though the Purification strange to say, is not mentioned.
Although the mention is a departure from the natural chronological order, a word may also be said here about the feast of the Immaculate Conception.
In the East we find it known to John of Euboea towards the close of the eighth century. It was then kept, as it still is in the Greek Churchon 9 December, but it is described by him as being only of partial observance.
Nevertheless, about the yearwe find it included in the calendar of the Emperor Basil Porphyrogenitus, and it seems by that time to have become universally recognized in the East. The West, however, did not long lag behind. A curious trace may be found in the Irish "Calendar of Aengus" c. This probably had no liturgical significance, but Mr. Edmund Bishop has shown that in some Anglo-Saxon monasteries a real feast of the Conception was already kept upon 8 December before the year Downside Review,pp.
At Naplesunder Byzantine influence, the feast had long been known, and it appears in the famous Neapolitan marble calendar of the ninth century under the form Conceptio S. The general recognition of the feast in the West seems, however, to have been largely due to the influence of a certain tractate, "De Conceptione B. Anselmbut really written by Eadmer, his disciple. At first only the Conception of Our Lady was spoken of, the question of the Immaculate Conception was raised somewhat later.
For the other Marian festivals, e.
All are comparatively modern additions to the calendar. The apostles and other New Testament saints From the mention of Sts, artigo. Peter and Paul conjointly on 29 June in the "Depositio Martyrum" of the "Philocalian Calendar", it is probable that the curso odontologia online Apostles both suffered on that day. In the time of St. Leo Sermon 84 the feast seems to have been celebrated in Rome with an octave, while the Syriac martyrologium in the East and Polemius Silvius in Gaul equally manifest principais artistas da arte renascentista tendency to do honour to the Principes Apostolorumthough in the former the commemoration is attached to 28 December, and in the latter to 22 February.
This latter day artigo, generally, given to the celebration of the Cathedra Petrialso belonging to very early times, while a feast in honour of St. Paul's conversion was kept contabilidade aplicada ao setor publico January. Of the other Apostles, artigo 7 cf, Sts. John and James appear together in the Syriac martyrologium on 27 December, and St.
John still retains that day in the West. With regard to St. Artigo we probably have a reliable tradition as to the day on which he suffered, for apart from an explicit reference in the relatively early "Acta" cf, artigo 7 cf. The other Apostles nearly all appear in some form in the artigo Martyrologium", and their festivals gradually came to be celebrated liturgically before the eighth or ninth century. The artigo of the precise days was probably much influenced by a certain "Breviarius" which was widely circulated in somewhat varying forms, artigo which professed to give a brief account of the circumstances of the death of each of the Twelve.
As an indication that some artigo these feasts must have been adopted at a more remote date than is attested in existing calendars, it may be noted that Bede has a homily upon the feast of St. Matthew, which the arrangement of the collection shows to have been kept by him in the latter part of September, as we keep it at artigo.
John the Baptistas already noted, had also more than one festival in early times. Besides the Nativity on 24 June, two of St. Similar honours were paid to St. Stephen, the first martyrmore particularly in the East. Gregory of Nyssain his funeral oration over St. On the other hand, St. Joseph's name does not occur in the calendar until comparatively late. Curiously enough the earliest definite assignment which the writer has been able to find of a special day consecrated to his memory occurs in the "Calendar of Aengus" c.
There we read of "Joseph, name that is noble, Jesus' pleasant fosterer". But despite an invocation of St. Joseph in the old Irish hymn "Sen De", ascribed to St. Colman Ua Cluasaigh c. It seems probable, from the nature of some of the apocryphal literature of the early centuries, that honour was of old paid to St. Joseph in SyriaEgyptand the East generally, but reliable data as to his feast are at present wanting. Growth of the calendar During the Merovingian and Carlovingian period the number of festivals which won practical recognition gradually increased.
Perhaps the safest indications of this development are to be gathered from the early service-books --sacramentaries, antiphonariesand lectionaries--but these are often difficult to date. Somewhat more compendious and definite are one or two other lists of feasts which have accidentally been preserved to us, and which it will be interesting to quote. A certain Perpetuus, Bishop of Tourssets down the Principal feasts celebrated in his day with a vigil as the following: Ioannis June 24th ; Natalis S.
Petri episcopatus February 22d ; Sext. Resurrectio Domini nostri I. Symphoriani July 22d ; Natalis S. Litorii September 13th ; Natalis S. Martini November 11th ; Natalis S. Bricii November 13th ; Natalis S. Similarly Bishop Sonnatius of Reims makes the following list of festivals which were to be kept as holidays absque omni opere forensi: In the course of the eighth and ninth centuries various German synods drew up lists of the ecclesiastical holidays which were to be celebrated with rest from work.
In an early constitution, ascribed to St. Bonifacewe find nineteen such days in each year besides the ordinary Sundaysthree free days after the feast itself being appointed both at Christmas and Easter. A council at Aix-la-Chapelle Aachen in fixed twenty-one holidays. This included a week at Easter and such feasts as St.
At Basle in the list was further extended, and it now comprised all the feasts of the Apostles. In England the days honoured in this way seem not to have been quite so numerous, at any rate not at first; but before the end of the tenth century many additions were made, while the ordinances of the synods were enforced by the royal authority.
The list comprised the four chief festivals of Our Lady and the commemoration of St. The observance of St. Dunstan's feast was imposed a little later during the reign of Cnut. As regards existing documents, perhaps the oldest ecclesiastical calendar, in the proper sense of the word, which still survives, is the one which was in the possession of the Englishman St.
WillibrordApostle of the Frisians, who has left in it an autograph note of the date of his consecration as bishop A. The calendar was probably written in England between and As it has never been printed it may be interesting to give here the entries made in the original hand, omitting the interpolations made by others at a slightly later date.
The manuscript which contains it is the well-known "Codex Epternacensis", now Latin manuscriptin the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Genevieve of Paris 6 Epiphany 13 St. Felix of Nola 17 St. Anthony, Hermit 18 St. Agnes Virgin 24 St. BabilasBishop and Martyr 25 Conversion of St. Paul at Damascus 29 St. Valerius, Bishop, and St. Brigid Virgin 2 St. Symeon, Patriarch 5 St.